Speaking is one of the four basic skills in learning foreign language besides, listening, reading, and writing. Speaking is a productive skill, where it can produce a language. According to the Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary, speak means to say words; to say or to talk somebody about something, to have a conversation with somebody; to address somebody in word etc. While speech means the power, act or the way of speaking. It has been taught since the students in junior high school, however, there are some difficulties faced by students to communicate in English. They have to think more often when speaking English. Students are not able to express what is on their minds because their lack of actual language. To help them, teachers may use an interesting teaching method to present their teaching materials that also help them in creating fun class. One of the alternative methods is Audio Lingual Teaching Method.
Audio Lingual Teaching Method is a method for teaching foreign language. In the Audio Lingual method, students first hear a language, later they speak the language. This way of language teaching is similar to the Direct Method. Like the Direct Method, the AudioLingual Method does not use the students’ native language. However, unlike the Direct Method, the Audio Lingual Method does not teach vocabulary, rather the teacher drills grammar. In the Audio Lingual Method, grammar is most important for the student. In other words, the students must repeat grammar pattern after the teacher. This means that the students should repeat a correct model of a sentence. The role of the teacher is to present new words within the same sentence structure. The teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language. The teacher also responsible for providing students with a good model for imitation. While the students are imitators of the teacher’s model. Students follow the teacher directions and respond as accurately and as quickly as possible
Audio Lingual Method also uses psychology. The students get a reward for speaking correctly. They get punishment if they speak incorrectly; because it is based on habit formation, which is established by stimulus, response and reinforcement. It gives priority to speaking the target language, and using the native language is not allowed. In teaching speaking through Audiolingual Method there are some techniques that use to make the students easy to understand. For example : Dialogue Memorization, Repetition Drill, Backward Buildup Drill, Substitution Drill, Transformation Drill and Chain Drill.
1. Dialogue Memorization
Dialogue or short conversation between two people are often used to begin a new lesson. Students memorize the dialogue through mimicry, students usually take the role of one person in the dialogue, and the teacher the other. After the students have learned the one person’s line, they switch roles and memorize the other person’s part. In the Audio Lingual Method, certain sentence patterns and grammar points included within the dialogue. These patterns and points are later practiced in drills based on the lines of the dialogue.
Here is the the simple example :
Sally : Good Morning , Bill.
Bill : Good Morning , Sally?
Sally : How are you?
Bill : Fine ,thanks. And you?
Sally : Fine. Where are you going?
Bill : I’m going to the post office.
Sally : I am too. Shall we go together?
Bill : Sure. Let’s go.
At first teacher repeat the dialogue and the students should listen carefully each line, after that the teacher saying Bill’s line and the students saying Sally’s line. The teacher stop the students from time to time when she feels they are straying too far from the model. And once again provides a model, then for further practice the lines of the dialogue, the teacher divides the students into two group. All the girls take Sally’s part and all the boy in the class take Bill’s part.
2. Repetition Drill
Students are asked to listen carefully to the teacher's model, and then they have to repeat as accurately and as quickly as possible. This drill is often used to teach the lines of the dialogue.
Here is the example :
Teacher: "Hi, Mark. How's it going?......(repeat)
Students: "Hi, Mark. How's it going
3. Backward Buildup Drill
This drill is used to break down the troublesome sentence into smaller parts. The teacher starts with the end of the sentence and has the class repeat just the last two words. Since they can do this, the teacher adds a few more words, and the class repeat this expanded phrase. Little by little the teacher builds up the phrases until the entire sentence is being repeated.
Teacher : Repeat after me : post office.
Class : Post office.
Teacher : To the post office.
Class : To the post office.
Teacher : Going to the post office.
Class : Going to the post office.
Teacher : I’m going to the post office.
Class : I’m going to the post office.
Through this step by step procedure, the teacher is able to give the students help in producing the troublesome line.
4. Substitution Drill
The teacher leads a single slot substitution drill in which the students will repeat a sentence from the dialogue and replace a word or phrase in the sentence with the word or phrase the teacher gives them. This word or phrase is called the cue. The students are supposed to take the cue which the teacher supplies, and put it into its proper place in the sentence. The purpose of this drill is to give the students practice in finding and filling the slots of a sentence.
The following is the example :
Teacher : I’m going to the post office.........(.repeat)
Students : I’m going to the post office.
Following this, the teacher shows the students a picture of a” restaurant” and says the phrase, “ The restaurant “. Teacher pauses, then says, “ I’m going to the restaurant”. From that example students realize that they should put the cue that has given by the teacher in its proper place. In here the students are expected to respond very quickly, without pausing.
5. Transformation Drill
Teacher gives the students a cetain kind of sentence pattern, an affirmative sentence for example. Students are asked to transform this sentence into a interrogative sentence. Other example of transformation to ask of students are changing a statement into a question, an active sentence into a passive. Here the example of transformation drill, which is the teacher ask the students to transform an affirmative sentence into interrogative sentence.
Teacher: "Sandra is in the classroom."
Students: "Is Sandra in the classroom?"
Teacher: "The girls are in the classroom."
Students: "Are the girls in the classroom?"
Teacher: "I am in the classroom."
Students: "Am I in the classroom?"
6. Chain Drill
A chain drill gives students an opportunity to say the lines individually. The teacher listens and can tell which students are stuggling and will need more practice. A chain drill also lets students use the expressions in communication with someone else, eventhough the communication is very limited. The teacher begins the chain by greeting a particular students or asking him question. That students responds then turn to the students sitting next to him and continue until all the students get it.
The teacher adresses the student nearest her with :
Teacher : Good Morning Mary.
Mary in turn, responds : Good Morning teacher. Mary says.
Teacher : How are you?
Mary answers : Fine, thanks. And you?
The teacher replies : Fine.
That student understand through the teacher’s gesture that she is to turn to the student sitting beside her and greet her.
Audio Lingual Method is a good method for teaching foreign language especially for the students between thirteen and fifteen years old because it uses psychology. The students get a reward for speaking correctly. They get punishment if they speak incorrectly, because it is based on habit formation. In the Audio Lingual Method, students first hear a language, later they speak the language, in here the mother tongue is not allowed. In other words, the students must repeat grammar pattern after the teacher. This means that the students should repeat a correct model of a sentence. The teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language. The teacher also responsible for providing students with a good model for imitation. In the Audio Lingual Method there are some effective techniques that can use in order to make the students easy to accept the lesson. Such as : dialogue memorization, repetition drill, backward buildup drill, substitution drill, transformation drill, repetition drill, and chain drill.
Freeman, L. D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York : Oxford University Press
Paul, D. (2003). Teaching English to Children in Asia. Hongkong : Pearson Education Asia Limited
Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. New York : Oxford University Press